The Discipline Of Love: A Critical Commentary On Sir Philip Sidney`s “Astrophyl And Stella”

Sir Philip Sidney wrote the first Elizabethan sonnets cycle, “Astrophyl & Stella”, published in 1591. The stylistic features of the sonnet that Sidney uses to introduce the cycle — such as overlap of phrases, sensory details, imagery, personification — culminate in a speaker attempting to write a poem for his lover using the Petrarchan concept. The speaker’s frustration, anger, and despair are underlying this image. It is his attempt to compose a sonnet for his beloved in the style of traditional Petrarchan conceit.

The poet begins the poem by quietly stating his intent to communicate his love with poetry’s raw and disciplined power: “Loving truthfully, I am fain, in verse, to show, my love” (line 1). Line 3: “Pleasure would cause her to read; reading would make her realize.” In the scansion the speaker uses both anaphora and rhetorical devices, such as the overlap of phrases, to connect each phrase. It is not just a short and concise summary, but he also chose to organize his thoughts into a very structured format. The tone of his speech is contemplative, inviting, and seductive. The use of overlapping phrases sets the stage for later thematic developments in the poetry.

The pattern of overlap in imagery and themes continues even though the phrase overlap ends in the fourth-line. Line 7’s zeugma “Others’ Leaves,” (line Seven) links the image of flipping scholarly or literary papers with the introduction of more natural imagery. “Fresh, fruitful showers,” in line eight, adds alliteration as well sensory detail. In line 10, the image is personified as Nature, the mother of invention. The poem’s theme changes as images evolve.

When you follow the “sunburned-brain” metaphor from line eight, it leads to a similar personification. The poem develops from simple devices into a complex interplay. The second quatrain introduces three distinct personifications. Nature, Invention and Study, which are all part of Line 10, have taken on roles independent of the speaker. They not only subvert the authority that he had in the opening quatrain, but they also take over the speaker’s rhetorical control. The speaker is forced to take on the role of an observer. He tries to learn as much as he can, but remains temporarily passive. This position is usually occupied by the reader. Ironically, they were also the abstractions used to guide poets in their writing.

Line 11 returns to “others feet” and its double meaning, expressing the thematic revolution of the sonnet. Readers will notice the speaker’s tone waver at this moment. His simple, confident meditation morphs into an eerie amalgamation of ideas. The speaker loses his initial “fain”, (line 1) enthusiasm.

The speaker has lost his initial optimism. The voice of optimism is gone. Interesting, the first line of the quatrain features tight, well ordered rhetorical formations and wit. This seems to show a speaker with a high level of intelligence. The mood changes to confusion, frustration, and helplessness by the second quadrant. Line 12: “Biting at my truant pencil for spite” also refers back to childhood. In the modern sense, “truant” is a term used to describe a student who has not performed well in school: essentially – if you will -‘misbehaving idiots.

The paradox culminates when the phrase, “helpless and in my throes,” (line 12), is read in both ways. The final epigrammatic pairt seems to undermine the speaker’s initial assertion. It would appear that the original connotation “throes”, i.e., the speaker’s resignation, is the most accurate. The speaker’s personal meditation is then transformed into a plain, direct dialogue. With only seven monosyllabic, blunt words in the last line, the scansion of the poem is completely different.

The speaker seems to have no more to say in the dramatic, momentary pause that follows this interruption. He tried, but failed. Why would the speaker bother to invoke her Muse? He has been humiliated by his own invention, nature and study. Instead, his Muse calls on the momentarily inactive speaker:

It is important to note the context in which Sidney wrote his poem. The Petrarchan tradition of idealizing the beloved in a sonnet has been around for a long time. Stella, from Sir Philip Sidney’s “Astrophil and Stella,” a Petrarchan classic love object, is placed brightly in the stars to attract the starlover’s attention. She is the ideal lover: incomparably desirable but out of reach. This is the way the poet’s idealized love manifests itself in the form of a beloved who is both perfect and impossible to reach. The first quatrain of this introductory sonnet only mentions “Dear She” once, before moving on to the speaker’s inner thoughts.

The speaker is able to express his true feelings, but he struggles to translate them into a rhyme scheme that has been carefully crafted. “I searched for words that would paint the darkest face of woe,”(line five). Woe is a reference to the melancholy he feels about his unattainable beloved.

The “spite”, or childlike temper which rebels at the disciplined writing, gives the last quatrain a spontaneity that is genuine. The speaker will be less inclined to categorize his emotions. The speaker understands that only the private, personal plane of the muse can provide access to love. Look into your heart (line 14).

Sidney’s journey through composition suggests that love was not meant to be calculated, controlled or reduced to mere rhetoric. To write a Petrarchan sonnet, the writer must express his or her own feelings. The truth is revealed when emotions are expressed accurately: not in an orderly, beautiful manner to elicit praise from the readers, but in a way that is honest, genuine, and best reflects the emotions of the writer.

The Soul Versus The Body In Sonnet 146 By William Shakespeare

Shakespeare shows the struggle between depth and appearance in sonnet 146. The poem’s theme and message are consistent in pointing to the contradictory relationship between inner and outer worlds of human beings. This theme manifests itself most clearly in the battle between the soul and body. Beyond this literal portrayal of two opposing forces lies a deeper, darker idea. It’s not just a difference in the appearance of someone, but a discrepancy that is inevitable. The failure of one side makes the battle unbalanced and frustrating. Shakespeare’s subtle attitude and language towards form portray this failure in a very clear way. The cold references to money in the language of this poem creates an additional battle. Shakespeare shows in certain moments how words can’t communicate the true intent of the writer. Shakespeare’s frustration is also revealed in his form. It is the physical shape that has been forced on his meaning. The poem, by its inability, to communicate its meaning, is a constant battle. It’s a representation of a fragile surface that imprisons its core.

The sonnet examines the subject from two different perspectives and highlights their differences. Right away, it is clear that surface and depth are distinct. Shakespeare’s opening line “Poor Soul, the Centre of My Sinful Earth” (l.1) achieves his distinction in a number of ways. In addressing his own soul, Shakespeare assumes that it is a distinct entity. The term “sinful soil” could refer to the earthy world, which is always opposed to heaven. Shakespeare does more than divide himself into two halves. He tells his reader which side to cheer. Shakespeare’s description of “poor” soul immediately reveals his preferred side. The reader is also moved by the cooing. The poem begins with a feeling of sympathy for the interior. The victimized spirit must learn to fight back, even though the body has been rendered unworthy. Shakespeare’s soul is in a constant battle with the second line of “rebel pot’rs” (l.2). Even though it is crucial to the speaker’s being, his soul is continually ambushed. The first two lines establish a strong conflict.

Shakespeare keeps adding meaning to the conflict imagery he uses, and his metaphors. The exterior expands its role, becoming a pitiful adversary. The body can be a “sinful soil” (l.1) as well as his “outwards walls”(l.4) or his “fading house”(l.6). The adjectives are building a subtle hierarchy. The terms “outward,””fading”and “servant” are all referring to states of betterment that remain unnamed. As “servant” needs a master, “outward” also requires an inner. To “fade” means to be in a better, original state. The soul’s essence is described indirectly. Shakespeare creates the other half of the soul by describing it negatively. This isn’t just an endless struggle between good versus evil. It’s the injust imprisonment of a more noble force. This is an inconsistency. The last two words of the first quintet explain this: Why do you suffer hunger and pine inwardly?/Painting outwardly so gayly expensive walls?” (l.4). The frustration of the heart is emphasized. It’s not just poor but also alone and suffering. This suffering is kept hidden from the world outside, which creates a terrible frustration. Shakespeare’s conclusion that “without being rich no longer” is necessary to “within be fed” (l.12) can be understood by the reader, who has seen the discrepancy between soul and body. He must sacrifice his interior substance to save the feeble exterior. It is a battle that is unfair and intense, as well as the themes of the poem hidden beneath its surface of cold financial references.

The use of words relating to money and commerce is distinct, and most evident in the second quadrant. In the central lines of the poem, which is about the soul and death, there are many petty references to loss and profit. This quatrain contains the words “cost,” (“lease”), “lease,” (“spend”), “inheritor”, (l.6),”inheritors,”(l.7)”charge,”(l.8). Shakespeare uses the battle as an argument about money, and he counsels his soul. He says “Why, with such a short-term lease,/Dost you spend on thy decaying mansion?” (ll.5-6). Once again, the image is of a victimized person, but in this case, it’s just bad business. This monetary symbol was first introduced in the first verse, where it asked “Why doest thou suffer poverty and pining within?/Painting all thy walls so gayly expensive?” (ll.3-4). In this case, the soul seems to be struggling with the external appearance. It is the same situation as a poet trying to express his vision within the fourteen lines of the sonnet. This connection is indicated by the word “painting”, which appears in the quoted lines. Shakespeare is frustrated by the idea of beautifying an outside.

This sonnet’s last lines bring death into sharp focus. It is a theme that has been explored before. The second quatrain is replete with reminders about the body’s weakness. Shakespeare suggests in the third quintet that the soul should use its flaw of mortality to achieve ultimate victory. In a conversation with his soul, Shakespeare suggests that the soul should “live on the loss of your servant,/And use the pine to increase the store you have” (ll.9-10). The speaker seems to have made his point by referring to mortality as the ultimate demise of the body and, again, indirectly creating the purity of the soul. In the end couplet, we see a poet who is not satisfied with his explanation. The word “Death”, repeated four time, is then hammered into the reader’s head: “So shall thou feed upon Death, who feeds on man,/And once Death has died, there will be no more dying” (ll.13-14). Shakespeare’s frustration is evident in his decision to state the truth outright. The poem’s message is also battling the form, which is akin to a pure and honest soul. The decision of repeating the same word in four places shows the limited nature of language. It is shocking to see the speaker’s mocking, candid tone when compared with his meticulous self-reflection in all that precedes these lines. The sudden, awkward truth is like a dying breathe.

This final expression, though it is evident throughout the poem that surface cannot communicate depth, does triumph. Even though the body is imperfect, it will eventually drive away the soul. After this last thought, the reader’s and speaker’s feelings are complicated. The battle between good and evil is no longer a simple black-and-white one. Shakespeare is inevitably drawn to this conclusion. The 12 lines that Shakespeare spent wailing over souls or bodies are quickly swept away by the strongest force. Both spheres will meet their end. The battle, which he depicts along the way by choosing sides and judging terms, is then pushed aside in favor of other themes. It is important to not ignore the frustrations that come with life and the struggle of communicating oneself. But they’re not very important in our universe, which is a path that leads only to Death.

The Scarlet Ibis By James Hurst

James Hurst uses a variety of literary devices to create The Scarlet Ibis, but symbolism is the most important. Hurst’s short story is dominated by the color red and nature.

Doodle is surprised to find a Scarlet Ibis, laying dead next to the bleeding Tree. It was a rare bird, and it traveled a lot before dying. Doodle can be compared to this bird in a number of ways. Doodle has achieved many great things. Just like a Scarlet Ibis who travels long distances, Doodle survived birth despite all odds. Doodle, like the bird, lived a shorter life than anticipated.

Hurst uses the color red throughout the story to symbolize death and foreshadow Doodle’s death. In the second paragraph, Hurst refers to Doodle as a “tiny red body” after he was born. Hurst uses the color symbolism in this passage to warn readers of Doodle’s impending death. Hurst also uses the Scarlet Ibis as a symbol of death, a bird that dies under the bleeding tree. Hurst’s last use of red as a symbol for death occurs at the end, when Doodle is killed. “He was bleeding profusely from the mouth. His neck and shirt front were a bright red,” (page 6)

Hurst describes Doodle’s death with this final symbol, but instead of depicting the color red in a terrible light he calls it brilliant. In order to make a comparison between the Scarlet Ibis and Doodles death, Hurst uses this last symbol. Nature is an important theme throughout the entire story. Doodle, as well as the narrator, are enriched by the beauty and wonder of the natural world. The Old Woman Swamp is described repeatedly before and after events in the story. Doodle’s first encounter with the swamp is filled with wildflowers. The nature motif that Doodle uses repeatedly connects him to the ibis as well as to the world of nature. It also highlights his beautiful life, which is quite different from those of other children. This text is filled with powerful red themes. The title “The Scarlet Ibis” is scarlet, a shade red. The ibis is perched in the tree that is bleeding, reminding readers of red. Doodle’s red shirt and skin are stained by blood when he dies. Doodle is also described by the narrator as having a reddish-purple body when he’s a child: “a tiny, reddish body that shriveled up” (Part I). In the story, red is a symbol of death. It also represents beauty because it’s associated with the ibis. It may seem contradictory, but this is an accurate representation of Doodle’s life.

Doodle’s brother tries to get him to touch the casket he was given as a child, but he refuses. Doodle’s fear is that touching the casket will invite death back to his life. The casket is what Doodle was expected to do, but it never happened.

Defoe’s A Journal Of The Plague Year: An Examination Of The Effects Of Apocalyptic Disease On Humanity

Daniel Defoe provides a contemporary reader with a vivid picture of the tense atmosphere of a disease-infested London. H.F.’s story is full of observations about human behavior that are universally applicable to anyone who finds themselves in an epidemic environment. H.F.’s journals, which include the discussion on the transmission of plague and its treatment, the human need for an explainable theory, as well the class consciousness, are all important in Defoe presenting this particular outbreak of plague as a complicated and multi-dimensional situation. As a result, modern readers are less likely to homogenize, simplify, or generalize the experience of plague victims. They will therefore be better able to appreciate the impact of disease. In examining A Journal of the Plague Year we must determine the extent to which plague is presented as a manifestation of divine will or a natural catastrophe. In 1665, the most common theory to explain the cause of the plague was God’s wrath. December 16th, 1720 was declared to be a Day of Repentance. The hope being that the human penitence could counter the effects of a plague. H.F. Defoe, the narrator of the book, is a good example of a religious person in this time. He always carries a Bible and will read random passages from it whenever he is in need of external support or guidance. H.F. decides to stay in London when the plague breaks out during 1665. Opening the Bible, he randomly opens Psalm 91. The passage gives him support to his decision. We should not misunderstand Defoe as a simple character that accepts plagues solely on the basis of religion. H.F. examines the many facets of the plague outbreak of 1665. H.F. for example states, “Nothing less than God’s immediate Finger or omnipotent Will could have caused it”2. It is common to attribute the plague to God’s anger. Londoners of this era believed “even the buboes” were caused by an angry god. H.F. in Defoe does not accept the explanation of an angry diety without questioning it. He accepts, for example, that plague could be explained from a scientific standpoint. It is possible to attribute plague to scientific natural causes. H.F. acknowledges that plague can have scientific causes, but he makes it clear that God is ultimately the source of these “natural” scientific causes. H.F.’s ambivalent viewpoints on God’s wrath as the authority for the Plague theory can be described best as “orthodox rationalism” H.F. is a credible plague narrator, even though he gives due credit to the prevailing wrath God Theory. The causes of the London plague outbreak must be investigated, but it is also important to look at the transmission methods. The miasmatic and contagion theories are the two main options for determining how plague spreads. Today, there is a consensus that plague spreads by fleas who are infected with rodents. However, these facts were not revealed until almost 100 years after London’s 1665 plague outbreak. According to the miasmatic viewpoint, plague is spread by air. The putrid air in a plagued area is said to carry the disease. Defoe, on the other hand, rejects miasmatic views in favor of a contagion view. Defoe demonstrates his pro-contagion viewpoints throughout H.F. He is adamant that the cause of the plague is the human being, not the environment. H.F.’s anger at the careless behavior of commoners in 1665, when many people did not pay attention to their company or who they were with, is understandable. H.F. explains his own opinion, which coincided with that of many physicians, that the Sick [breathed Death upon all who came in contact with them the Sick] infected only those people within their reach the Sick] wore the infection on their clothes, and even their hands would spread the disease to the things they touched if the person was warm or sweaty. H.F. certainly adheres to this theory. In order to understand H.F.’s story, it is important to know the two main theories of how plague spreads. His strong belief in contagion theory underlies his recommendations for treatment and prevention. H.F. believed that plague was spread by human to human contact and not the air. He also believed plague couldn’t be prevented. He presents contradictory views to the reader on two of the most popular methods for treating plague in those days, which included closing up houses and fleeing the city. In spite of his own resolve to stay in a city as he believes plague to be God-willed and unavoidable, he recommends a mass evacuation to avoid plague. H.F. states that “even though Providence appeared to have directed my Conduct in a different direction, it’s my opinion…that the most effective Physick for the Plague would be to flee from it.”7. He also believes that the plague can be transmitted from one person to another, but he still considers it futile to close down the houses in order to stop the plague spreading. He makes it clear in many places that the act of closing the doors is not effective and can be counterproductive. This is because the action cannot be enforced. For example, he writes: “I am now speaking of People, who are made desperate because they fear being shut up. And they break out either through Stratagem or Force. Either before or after their shut-up. Their misery is not lessened when they’re out but sadly exacerbated.”8. H.F., therefore, does not support the closing of houses to prevent plague. H.F., Defoe’s narrator conveys opposite but equally justified views regarding the transmission of plague and its prevention. H.F.’s contradictory character may be a reflection of his deliberative and pragmatic nature. He is unable to accept any concrete reasoning to better understand the incomprehensible plague. H.F.’s audience can see the hunger for understanding in the disease-ridden environment. H.F.’s story demonstrates the need to visualize the plague and its force in order to derive some kind of meaning. H.F. relates how a crowd was gathered in the street to watch what a woman said she saw, a white-clad Angel with a flaming blade in his Hand. She told the people that it appeared clear to her. She showed them how to move and form the Figure, she described each part in detail. The Sword is as clear as it can be. The Angel was seen by another. He saw his Face and said, What an amazing creature! One thing and another9. The reader can gain valuable insight by examining this important passage in H.F.’s narrative. H.F. demonstrates how people will take advantage of those in a vulnerable position during a plague. Natasha Rosow explains: Posters were plastered in fraudulent advertisements for “infallibles” preventatives pills, “never failure” preservatives or “the Royalantidote.” Even some doctors succumbed to greed and said: “I will give my advice free of charge, but not medicine. We can see how the general atmosphere of plague was one that was filled with fear and manipulation. In this way, plague’s inexplicable character creates an enigmatic air, which then incites a desire for meaning in those affected. This is evident in the crowd of people gathered outside, who are trying to decipher an incomprehensible image. In Defoe’s narrative of plague, class discrimination is a major issue. Although there was no consensus on the causes of and the spread of plague in the narrative, the general belief is that “overcrowded, filthy and smelling environments are more conducive to plague”11. It is true that the belief in a more frequent plague among the poorer classes did lead to further class divisions. H.F. spends a substantial part of his story sympathizing for the poorer class during the 1665 plague. Margaret Healy explains this in “Defoe’s Journal: The English Writing Tradition.” While H.F. chastises a “useless tongue” for its lack of foresight for the poor, for their excesses and for their bad habits, he admires them for their courage. H.F. for instance, tells the story of three men fleeing from plague to the countryside. H.F. compliments their ingenuity. He also praises their religious conviction. H.F. clearly feels sympathy and responsibility towards the poor, who are the most affected by plague. In this narrative, Defoe recommends a massive evacuation of London from the plague-stricken poor. This highly unpractical suggestion wasn’t followed through, but we can still sense his concern. He describes the bribery of watchmen as another way the poor were hurt. He says that as some people got out their homes by stratagem after the doors were closed, so did others get out by bribing watchmen… I confessed, at the same time, that I thought it the most innocent corruption, or bribery, a Man could commit, and therefore I couldn’t help but feel sorry for the poor men14. Healy says that Defoe holds that he believes “public charity was the only thing that could have saved and kept London’s order in 1665”. Defoe’s emphasis on the poor is a reflection of the fact that their salvation is inextricably linked to the salvation of the plague-infested London. Conclusion: The questions of providence, treatment, cause, a need for meaning, and class consciousness that come up when examining H.F.’s interpretations about plague are relevant beyond just the 1665 visitation to London. Daniel Defoe focuses on the moral implications of the economic tensions that existed between the aristocracy (the wealthy), the middle-class and the poor. H.F.’s observations and views of plague-infested London sheds light on modern epidemics like AIDS. Laurence Segel, a physician of the present day, asks, “Can we honestly say that we have never abandoned, ostracized or fled from those who are afflicted?”16. The Plague is an Albert Camus book that contains a statement which rings true. Endnotes 1 Daniel Defoe. Journal of the plague year. Edited and introduced by Louis Landa. Oxford University Press published a book in London during 1969. 2 Daniel Defoe. Journal of the plague year. Edited and introduced by Louis Landa. Oxford University Press published a book in London in 1969. The main point of the passage is that in order to be successful, it is important to have an understanding of the potential obstacles that may be encountered along the way and to be prepared to meet them. It is also important to identify and take advantage of the opportunities that present themselves. Preparing for the journey ahead requires dedication and hard work, but with focus and determination, success is achievable. 3 Margaret Healy. Literature and Medicine 22, No. 1 (Spring, 2003): 25-44. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Copyright. Page twenty-eight. 4 Daniel Defoe. Journal of the plague year. Edited and introduced by Louis Landa. Oxford University Press released the publication in London in 1969. Page xxiii (introduction). 5 Daniel Defoe. Journal of the plague year. Edited and introduced by Louis Landa. Oxford University Press published a book in London in 1969. Page xxiii (introduction). 6 Daniel Defoe. Journal of the plague year. Edited and introduced by Louis Landa. Oxford University Press, which is located in London, published the book in 1969. Page xxviii (introduction). 7 Daniel Defoe. Journal of the plague year. Edited and introduced by Louis Landa. Oxford University Press of London published the book in 1969. Page xviii (introduction). 8 Daniel Defoe. Journal of the plague year. Edited and introduced by Louis Landa. Oxford University Press first published this text in London in 1969. Page 55 reveals that… 9 Daniel Defoe. Journal of the plague year. Edited and introduced by Louis Landa. Oxford University Press published a book in London in 1969. The author goes on to discuss the importance of having a clear goal in mind. He emphasizes the need to set specific objectives and to have an action plan in order to make sure that these goals are met. He suggests that it is not enough to simply have a goal; it must be backed up with tangible action. He also suggests that it is important to review progress regularly and to adjust the plan accordingly. This will help ensure that the objectives are achieved in a timely manner. 10 Natasha Rosow. Studies in the Novel 30(2) Summer 1998. “Constructing authenticity.” Copyright 1998 University of Northern Texas. Page 2 included. 11 Margaret Healy. Literature and Medicine 22, No. 1 (Spring 2003), 25-44. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Copyright. Page 34 mentions that the discovery of a new species can be an exciting experience for a scientist. 12 Margaret Healy. Literature and Medicine 22, No. 1 (Spring 2003), 25-44. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Copyright. Page 37 showed. 13 Daniel Defoe. Journal of the plague year. Edited and introduced by Louis Landa. The original publication of Oxford University Press was in London in 1969. Page 58 states that… 14 Daniel Defoe. Journal of the plague year. Edited and introduced by Louis Landa. Oxford University Press located in London published a book in 1969. On page fifty-seven, it was mentioned that… 15 Daniel Defoe. Journal of the plague year. Edited and introduced by Louis Landa. Oxford University Press published a book in London in 1969. Page thirty-seven. Laurence Segel – physician and assistant Vice President Medical Research and Development, Toronto Financial Firm. Maclean Hunter Ltd. established their copyright in 1997.

On November 20th, 2003. Albert Camus was a French philosopher and Nobel Prize laureate. The epidemic. Trans. Stuart Gilbert wrote. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1948. Bibliography Camus, Albert. The affliction. Trans. Stuart Gilbert’s work asserts that… Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1948. Defoe, Daniel. Journal of the plague year. Edited and introduced by Louis Landa. Oxford University Press of London published the text in 1969. Healy, Margaret. Literature and Medicine 22, No. 1 (Spring (2003) 25-44. The Johns Hopkins University Press is the owner of all copyrights. Segel, Laurence — physician and assistant Vice President Medical Research and Development with a Toronto Financial Firm. Maclean Hunter Ltd. was the holder of the copyright in 1997.

On November 20th, 2003.

Struggle For Freedom In Jack London’s The Call Of The Wild

Jack London’s book ‘The Call of the Wild,’ takes place during the time of the gold rush that led many people to search for gold in Canada. Buck’s journey is told as a sled-dog whose popularity increases when gold is discovered. The author uses a variety of ideas that are used to describe Buck’s life. Buck does more difficult things than he is capable of doing, putting his life and safety at risk. The perspective of an individual about life can change through taking risks and seeking freedom.

Jack London uses Buck to illustrate various concepts surrounding Buck’s character. Buck is influenced by his life. The treatment of dogs as domesticated pets that are dependent on humans is obvious. Buck and his fellow dogs play challenging roles in the absence of humans. If the gold-hunters run out of food for the dogs, the dogs will form a gang with Buck as their leader. The author suggests that buck, the older dogs and the new ones were all afraid of their masters because they lacked the ability to guide them. London claims, “Not to mention that they were unable to work the dogs themselves, but also didn’t have any idea how to do so”. If you think about it, it is crazy to think that dogs can do more than humans. They don’t possess the same level of sense that we have.

John Thornton rescues Buck at one point of the narrative and Buck commits himself to John Thornton. Buck is used by the author to illustrate different themes. These themes include the challenges and dangers that Buck faces because of his master’s desire to be wild. Thoronton had Buck freed, but over time his demands on the dog grew and forced him to return to his domesticated state. Buck and his fellow dogs are subjected to harsh conditions and their masters’ demands. The author says, “They were in a sad plight, even though they weren’t pursued”. Buck and other dogs had to live in fear, because their humans did not do what they were supposed to. In fact, they took on tasks beyond their abilities and put their lives at risk.

The author continues to develop the theme as Buck joins the pack of wolves and plans to be their leader. The idea is wild because, in actuality, wolves can be larger and more powerful than dogs. In this case, it is not credible for a wolf to be led by a dog despite the fact that dogs and humans are known to fight each other. In his story, the writer postulates: “Here, there, Buck met dogs from the southland, but primarily, they were wild wolf huskys”. These animals turned Buck into a wild, bloodthirsty dog.

The Call of the Wild is a story that uses both dogs and human characters to explore various topics. Dogs are forced to perform acts that require skills and reasoning, just like humans. They struggle to lead a life that is similar. Buck is the leader dog in the story. The team of dogs are sold to gold seekers who treat them cruelly and put their lives at risk. Jack London’s idea that the dog would leave humans in order to find freedom is used. Dogs are domesticated animals and should therefore be more suited to human care. Buck, however, feels his loss after John Thronton’s death. This distance from civilization makes him feel free. Buck experienced many difficult situations and risked his safety as he searched for freedom. The journey changed his perspective, from being a civilized animal to becoming a bloodthirsty beast. Through taking on risks and seeking joy, an individual’s outlook changes.

The Effect Of Childhood On A Person’s Life In “The Glass Castle” By Jeannette Walls

The childhood of a person can determine their life’s path. Jeannette’s childhood was a major factor in her life. In Jeannette Walls’ memoir Glass Castle, Walls’ children have to endure an unusual childhood. Their bipolar mother Rosemary is also a bipolar parent. Family members move from California, Arizona and West Virginia in the middle night. Children of the Walls decide to leave their parents behind and move to New York. Jeannette benefits from having parents who are like Rex & Rosemary. Rex is known to teach Jeannette swimming by throwing it into the sea until she figures it out.

Jeannette always finds herself in situations that she’s not prepared for. Yet, she manages to survive. Rex’s unique way of teaching his child to swim is: “If don’t you want sink, learn how swim”. Rex may be doing this in order to encourage his children to persevere. Jeannette can sum up her entire childhood when her Dad teaches her how to swim. Rex showed his love and concern for his kids in this moment. Rex will often put his children in difficult situations and expect them to succeed. Jeannette’s perseverance lessons from Rex helped her to overcome many of her challenges.

Jeannette displays creativity and determination in her decision to make her braces.

Jeannette is from a crazy family so her stubbornness will sometimes seem insane. Jeannette demonstrates her creativity and perseverance by making her braces on her own. Jeannette was always taught to take care of herself as a kid. She is now able make her braces by herself. Children’s characteristics are what determines where they end up.

They have all benefited in some way from the Walls’s parenting. The Walls’ children were taught responsibility, independence, and how to protect one another. Rex Rosemary would have made it impossible for the majority of kids to succeed. The hardships of their childhood and the struggles they faced helped them to succeed. Their tough childhood caused them to be more determined and work harder for their goals. Jeannette’s childhood is what made her the woman she became.

The Demise And Redemption Ivan Ilych

Ivan Ilych’s dead. His death would hardly be considered “mourned”, while his family, friends and colleagues are more concerned with how to make money from it. He has lived a life of misery and suffering. It is understandable that one might be curious as to how Tolstoy manages the character of “The Demise of Ivan Ilych”, who finds redemption in the death process. He questions his life’s lack of purpose, denies it, accepts that it is so, and then tries to redeem his self. Ivan has lived an almost identical life to a self-absorbed hamster. It is therefore absurd that he could be forgiven of all his sins within a few short hours. Ivan’s redemption comes through his death. Ivan’s death is painful, and he struggled “as an executioner struggles to save a condemned man, knowing that he can’t save himself” (166), but it ended in forgiveness and joy.

Ivan Ilych lives a life that is conventional, just like his peers. He only realizes it after his death. Ivan follows societal norms so closely that he appears to have lost his individuality. His house is “just like the homes of those of modest means who want to look rich and so they succeed in looking like others just like them” (138). This may not seem intentional, but he is trying to fit in, even if it’s difficult. In the midst of his marital troubles, he compares life to marriage, where his duty is to “lead in a manner that society approves” (134). He only begins to doubt his life when he is dying. Ivan begins to wonder for the first ever whether his life had been for nothing, and if he might have done things differently. He asks himself, “What if I’ve been doing it wrong my entire life?” (164) Finally, he understands that society does not always deem something “right”. He asks himself if he’s lived his life the way he should, and concludes that he didn’t. Although this isn’t the beginning, it is definitely the beginning of the revelation.

Ivan goes beyond simply realizing he’s lived his own life poorly. He realises he’s sucked in his family and possibly ruined their life. He treats his family with such indifference that it is shocking. He is only interested in maintaining the appearance of a functional and normal family. In fact, when he got married to his wife, it was more about him than his wife. He asked himself, “Really…why shouldn’t you marry?” (133), knowing he would have to eventually marry to “fit into” society. His family has also been affected by his callousness and air of indifference. He falls in love before the wedding, but his wife hates him as time goes on. She wishes he was dead. But she doesn’t want his salary to stop. Ivan’s recently engaged daughter is frustrated by Ivan’s sickness because it makes her feel sad and dims any excitement about the upcoming wedding. Even Ivan’s close friends don’t feel bad about his death. All of his friends and family feel only irritation or displeasure at having to perform the unpleasant tasks associated with a funeral.

Ivan, who is dying, realizes that his life and death have been hard on them, whether their tears are sincere or not, and tries reconciling with them. He thinks it’ll be better when he dies for his family, whether or not their tears are genuine. Ivan has never before shown such genuine concern and compassion for someone else. Ivan apologizes to his family for the mess he’s made of their lives, but can only say “sorry” for him and “sorry you, too” (166). He fails to even try to “forgive” himself.

Ivan can finally find closure on his death in the last stages. Ivan experiences immense pain as he dies. He is in constant pain and stops screaming when he realises that he has made a mistake. After apologizing to his son and wife, he immediately feels his pain “dropping at once…from every side” (167). The pain has disappeared and he can’t feel it anymore. Ivan is finally able to overcome his fear. He was afraid to die before, but now understands it is nothing to be scared of. He now wonders what happened to death. His fear is gone because he realizes that he’ll be forgiven. Ivan is finally at peace with God. Ivan blames God in the beginning for his suffering and pain. He weeps over “the cruelty and absence of God”. At the end of his life, he finds peace because “He Whose Understanding Mattered Would Understand” (167). Ivan’s redemption comes now, as he approaches death. He knows that everything is going to be okay, and he feels no pain or fear. Ivan Ilych’s death brings him redemption.

Ivan’s dying is a cruel, slow process. He endures three days of unbearable pain and all those around him are convinced that he is about to die. Ivan only finds redemption after three days of suffering. Any shorter period would have been insufficient. He’s led a life that is meaningless, “wrong”. He has hurt those around him and himself. Pain is eased only when he regrets his actions and realizes what he has done. He will only be forgiven when he realizes his mistakes and tries to reconcile with others. Only then can he find true joy and redemption. Ivan’s demise is the outcome of his life. Had he read the inscription “respice finim” (130) on his own wristwatch chain, it might have turned out differently.

The Topic Of Slavery In America In “Kindred” By Octavia E. Butler

Octavia E. Butler’s Kindred introduced me to slavery in America like I’d never seen it before. Butler shows the reader how to relate to slavery’s brutality by comparing antebellum medicine with modern medicine of the time. Dana experienced the rapid advances in medical science in what she considered the present day, the late 1970s. Modern medicine allows us, as readers, to be able to connect with Dana who was living in the 1800s. She experienced drastically inferior medical practices. Although this affected everyone, it was especially affecting the slaves and the plantations.

Dana is introduced to the barbaric practices of medicine in the 1800s by Alice when she tells her that two of Dana’s children have died. “What caused their deaths?” I asked. ‘Fevers. They died despite the doctor bleeding and purging them. The babies were aged between 2 and 3. He said the fever would be broken. It did. They died, but they did. Dana found it shocking that a physician would treat infants with this form of fever-treating medicine. Dana was shocked that a doctor would do this to an infant as a form of treatment for fevers.

Butler uses the scene to demonstrate the impact of medical procedures during that time on slaves. A mother would find it devastating to watch her baby’s life be saved by a doctor who bled and purified them. She had no other option. Dana told Alice that she shouldn’t even have let doctors near the babies. However, since Rufus had also fathered them, Alice didn’t get to decide. Because she was a servant and had her babies conceived by a man who owned her, she did not have any say in decisions regarding her kids. Dana understands the importance modern medicine holds in people’s everyday lives. The reader can therefore better relate to Dana as Butler highlights medievalesque medicine.

Tom Weylin threatens Dana with her life, if Rufus should die. “What do you mean by mosquitoes causing people to get ague?” He asked. I said, “We can probably forget about it.” This does not look to be malaria. He is in pain. “I think you should take him to the doctor” (205). Dana, Tom and Rufus had this exchange while standing near Rufus who was in excruciating pain. Dana’s task is to cure a severe and potentially life-threatening condition that she is not aware of. Tom, who is adamant about not wanting a physician to assist Rufus in healing, leaves all of the responsibility with Dana. Tom believes that Dana will be able do the same thing again because she has saved Rufus’s lives on multiple occasions. Dana can’t control the severity of the illness, nor does Tom. Dana finally managed to ease Rufus’s discomfort by forcing Rufus into taking the aspirin that she brought from home.

Butler probably used this to demonstrate how rare it was to find any medical treatment of any quality on a slave plantation in this period. Rufus is the son the the plantation’s owner. He was never treated before Dana. In the 1800s, even one of the commonest drugs worked wonders for a severely ill patient. Rufus’ illness was not known to anyone. He received no treatment, no medicine, no method, or any procedure. The only thing they did was to try and make him more comfortable. It was a dangerous environment because there were no effective medications.

Alice suffered severe injuries due to dog bites when she was captured while trying escape. Tom Weylin doesn’t want to pay to have his slaves cured by doctors, so Dana does it for Alice. Rufus responds with “anti-what?” to her question. Dana decides to use a brine as a treatment for the wounds. “But…that’s the brine that Daddy uses to treat field workers,” he responded. “It can hurt them more than a beating sometimes. Dana is aware of how deadly and painful infected wounds can become if they are not properly treated. So, even though Alice will feel the pain from the brine, it’s necessary to save her life. Dana was so embarrassed by her actions that she admitted it to herself. Butler uses this example to show the reader the brutality of slavery through the lack of medical care. Rufus being unable to identify an antiseptic shows just how far medicine had progressed.

Butler sheds light on slavery’s raw truths and the consequences that followed. Butler goes into great detail about the medical and after-effects of slavery. Butler uses this idea about the horrors in antebellum medicine to illustrate the brutality of slavery.

The Importance Of Empathy In To Kill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee

Harper Lee’s 1960 novel To Kill a Mockingbird was released. Harper Lee uses Scout all through the book to encourage the reader to demonstrate empathy, to put themselves in others’ shoes and to see the world from their perspective. As Scout matures, she develops empathy and conveys the message. Walter Cunningham, Scout’s teacher on her first school day, shows Scout that she understands him. Scout shows empathy to Boo Radley as the novel progresses. Scout has fully developed empathy for Boo at the end.

Scout’s empathy grows as To Kill a Mockingbird advances. Scout has reached the age where she can attend school. Her first day at school seems unfair and overwhelming, but as time goes on, Scout develops empathy. Miss Caroline Fisher offers Walter Cunningham, Scout’s new teacher at Maycomb, money to buy food because she can tell he’s malnourished. Scout explains when Walter does not accept the food money, that “the Cunninghams are never in debt… They have little, but get by”. Scout respects Walter and the Cunninghams’ values, not their poverty. Scout shows a high level of empathy for other people and their problems through his actions.

Scout’s character is portrayed in To Kill a Mockingbird as a child who is thoughtful, but not empathetic. Scout and Jem were first surprised by Boo, a dark creature that had been imprisoned in Boo’s dad’s residence for more than fifteen years. Jem tries to convince Scout to help him trap Boo. Jem, Scout and later understand that they had been irritating a man inside his house. Jem says something like, “Scout. It seems I’m starting to get it.” I’m starting to understand why Boo has been locked in his house all these years. . . It’s not because he doesn’t want to leave”. Scout’s unique ability to see Boo from this perspective shows her developing empathy. You can show Scout to be curious and beginning to understand the concept of empathy through her actions.

Scout’s relationship with Boo Radley changes as she grows more empathic. At the end of this book, Scout stands on the porch and thinks about Boo. “Atticus’s right…you cannot truly understand a man until he is in your shoes.” Scout’s ability was to comprehend what Atticus told her. She understood and saw things from a mockingbird perspective. The metaphor shows Scout to be empathetic toward Boo’s life and struggles. Scout becomes more mature and begins to see things from others’ perspectives.

The essay shows that Scout, despite her struggles in Maycomb County, was able to mature and change as she aged and gradually developed empathy. Scout’s lack of empathy is evident in the first chapters, especially towards Boo Radley. Scout begins to show more empathy towards various characters later in the book, including Boo Radley, Walter Cunningham, and others. Harper Lee uses Scout as a contrast to the invitee reading to emphasize the importance of showing empathy to others. Scout’s transition from being rude and unempathetic to becoming a nice child with wisdom reminds all of us that there is still room for growth.

Dreams Theme In The Play A Raisin In The Sun

A Raisin in the Sun is a play that depicts dreams through the perspective of Ruth and Walter. Benetha also plays a role. The play also focuses on the Younger family members who have to put off their dreams because of their family’s financial struggles. For example, Mama is unable to provide Travis with the fifty-cents he requires for a class activity. This play is about a black family and how they try to improve themselves based upon their financial situation.

The garden in the play is a symbol of the way she would care for her family, as she would do with her plants. Both dreams are put on hold because of a lack in money, which makes them live with their families in crowded apartments.

Mama’s wish is the same as Ruth’s, and the desire for a house with a huge garden stems from the fact the $10,000 insurance claim would be available to them after Big Walter Lee had died. Walter’s dream would be fulfilled by using the $10,000 from his insurance to buy the house and garden that his family wanted. Walter’s plan to build a store with Willy Harris, one of Walter’s great friends, wasn’t a good one because it would benefit only him. Walter’s family also thought that it was selfish to make this decision.

Beneatha’s dreams are not to be forgotten. Benetha’s dreams would be the most important for some. She wants to become an MD. Walter was going to put down $3,500 towards Benethas school costs, but Walter lost money when he bought the liquor store. Her dream has been deferred.

Lorraine Hansberry was inspired to write this play by her experience growing up on Chicago’s South Side and experiencing segregation. Hansberry brings out her activist side in this play. Walter is speaking to Mama and Walter has asked Mama why Clybourne Park. It’s true, there aren’t colored people in Clybourne Park. But she adds, “Well, they’re going to be more now…I just wanted to find something nice for my kids for as little money as possible…The houses that they build in the far-flung areas cost twice as much.” She then says in an article, “The problems is the fact that Negroes still live in segregated neighborhoods in Chicago.” This tells us that the city of Chicago is still segregated.

It is evident in Langston Hughes’ poem Harlem that all the family members who had dreams which were deferred struggled to keep them alive. But they are not just individual dreamers, at the end there is one big house that will unite everyone as a single family.