Literary Explication Of Virginia Woolf’s William Shakespeare

Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own is a significant literary work that offers an analysis of the changing role of female authors. Woolf repeatedly references William Shakespeare and the play Antony and Cleopatra when discussing past and contemporary writers. She calls Shakespeare’s writing an “ideal style” for authors to emulate. Woolf is clear when she says that Shakespeare has a rare authorial voice that few can match. Woolf refers to Shakespeare on numerous occasions as having an “incandescent style” that allows the reader’s interpretation to be the final one. Woolf has a particular style in her writing that she holds high. She uses the deliberately undistinct words that Shakespeare used to describe his characters, and the metaphors that he employed.

Woolf uses Shakespeare to illustrate the “ideal conditions” under which literature can be produced. She says:

. . . Shakespeare’s genius was an example of a mind that burnt brightly. . . Shakespeare is not well known, and this may be the reason why. . . We are not helped by some “revelation” which reminds us of the writer. It is not a “revelation” of the writer that helps us. His poetry is therefore free and unhindered. Shakespeare was the first human to express his thoughts completely. I thought, if ever there was a mind incandescent or unobstructed, it must be Shakespeare. . . It was Shakespeare’s Mind” (Woolf 56).

Woolf’s words directly support her view of Shakespeare as an artist. But they also provide a wider door for readers to explore, since Woolf doesn’t reveal what she means by “incandescent”, “without impediment”, etc. It is up to them to dig deeper into Shakespeare’s works to see if Woolf is right.

You can find specific examples of this style of writing in Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra. Shakespeare uses his verse to create ambiguous characters. Shakespeare uses words that are ambiguous by design. Woolf praises Shakespeare’s unprejudiced writing. He uses carefully chosen words to describe characters in a way that doesn’t promote any particular viewpoint. Shakespeare uses this aspect to keep his personal views and preferences latent. In Antony and Cleopatra for example, he uses specific wordplays to show his characters changing constantly. As a result, the characters cannot be described in one dimension and they shift with the reader’s perspective from scene-to-scene. Shakespeare’s androgynous character descriptions allow readers to see his characters from a variety of perspectives, not just one.

Shakespeare’s language, Woolf says, makes it difficult to determine how the author feels about characters.

In Act I, scene iii, Cleopatra makes a comment to Antony about becoming his future queen. She says: “But sir forgive me / Since my becomings kill me when they do not / Eye well to you” (Shakespeare I.i.52-53). Cleopatra makes a statement to Antony in Act I sc. Cleopatra can be seen as making a statement about her ability to make Antony a better queen by transforming into different personalities. However, the word becomings has other meanings. They also refer to Cleopatra’s constant mood changes and many versions that she shows to the reader. Cleopatra’s ability to transform and shift from one scene to the next is evident. Shakespeare’s words are able to convey this. Shakespeare’s use of language, which appears to be one way, can actually promote the characters in many different ways.

Shakespeare deliberately uses ambiguous words to convey a complex message. This is evident in Enobarbus’ description of Cleopatra’s character. Enobarbus claims, “Age will not wither or stale/Her infinitude. She makes people hungry where she is most satisfied. “The vilest of things are / becoming themselves in her so that holy priests can bless her when she’s rigish” (Shakespeare, II.iii.276-281). This passage contains the phrase “infinite varieties” which also deserves further interpretation. Shakespeare is letting readers know that Cleopatra’s character is not a one-dimensional definition. The word “varieties,” as an example, has no one accepted meaning. It can be interpreted in a variety of ways. Shakespeare’s focus on changing “varieties,” or the characters in his plays, from scene-to-scene allows readers to decide how they should be described. Woolf referred to Shakespeare as writing without prejudice and about obstacles. The characters do not convey Shakespeare’s own personal view, but by using words that show their fluidity and mutability the play is more open to interpretation.

Shakespeare uses wordplay in the play to describe Antony’s changing personality and actions. Shakespeare’s V.xv.13-14 states that Antony says, “Here is Antony. / Yet I cannot hold this apparent shape, My Knave.” Shakespeare’s use of the phrase “hold that shape” again serves to make Antony indefinable. Both Antony’s and Cleopatra’s “shape” changes from scene-to scene. This ambiguity gives his characters a wider definition, as they are shaped by the unpredictable and ever-changing actions of both Antony and Cleopatra, not by Shakespeare. Shakespeare’s artful choice to let Antony and Cleopatra have so many different representations leaves the final characterisation in the hands of his readers, rather than Shakespeare himself. It’s the reader who decides whether Antony ends up as a warhero, a love-stricken naivete, or a zealous political actress. Shakespeare is able to keep his biases and sympathies out of his characters. Shakespeare doesn’t speak through or on behalf of his characters. They do.

Shakespeare uses metaphors to help describe this phenomenon and give his writing an “incandescent” or creative quality. Shakespeare uses metaphors as a way to allow readers to have a different perspective on characters.

Antony’s Act V lines, for example, can be used to convey the changing emotions and actions of characters from one scene to another. Antony describes the main characters of the play through his statement on clouds.

We see clouds that look like dragons, / Vapors that look like bears or lions, / towered citadels, pendant rocks, / forked mountains, or blue promontories / With trees that mock our eyes. These / signs have been seen by you. These are the black vesper pageants. […] The rack makes the horse indistinct, as water does when it is submerged in water. / (Shakespeare IV.xiv 3-14)

Shakespeare is able to cross boundaries with metaphorical descriptions like this. This allows readers to see Cleopatra as a “lioness” or “dragonish Cleopatra” depending on the scene. It shows how flexible her character is. Shakespeare uses metaphors to show the variety of his characters. This allows him to present his writing in its unique form or, as Woolf puts it, “incandescence.” Shakespeare’s use is a metaphor to assure readers that they can use a wide range of lenses in order to understand Antony. Shakespeare uses metaphors as a way to encourage reader interpretation. It allows readers the freedom to develop their own characters and does not reflect the author’s agenda or latent sympathies.

Cleopatra makes a similar statement in Shakespeare V.ii.344, just before she expires. As with Antony’s cloud metaphor, the reader is free to interpret it in any way they see fit. The reader can interpret “fire” in many different ways, and the same goes for “air”. This is a great example of Shakespeare’s writing. Shakespeare leaves it up to the readers to decide how to interpret Cleopatra’s actions and words.

Shakespeare’s metaphors, and his careful word selections, allow readers to interpret the characters and play in a variety of ways even after it is finished. Was Antony’s death honorable? Cleopatra, was she a mere actress? Shakespeare’s characters and writing style are both mutable. Readers may use single words or metaphors to reveal multiple meanings about a particular character. Shakespeare’s brilliance is evident in the fact that his play leaves its audience with more questions than answers. Shakespeare’s writing is complex because he can write without bias, and let his words control him. Shakespeare’s ability to write without prejudice, allowing his words to hold power over his person, leaves his writing with a successful complexity.

A Simple Life Is A Happy Life

In today’s world, life is simply awesome. Earlier I thought that living life in a way that requires constant fulfillment such as status, shopping or drama would bring happiness. However, the reality is that it only leaves a messy mess. Simple living has its benefits. The unexpected always happens in life. It is when something unexpected happens and it’s true that the real surprises occur. It was never in my mind that I would experience something so amazing in my lifetime.

During childhood, I became very curious about the world. I used to go for walks with my family in the Coote’s Paradise, a forest that is located downtown. In different situations, I would think about what might happen if we lost our way on the trail. We could be completely lost until we found our way back to civilization. It could be a life-changing experience.

I began to realize that my dream of experiencing the forest was fading as time went on. The unexpected can happen at that time. My granddad and I decided to go on a new path. My granddad was unable to tell us where we came. Although it was completely unexpected, I found myself feeling a little excited because we weren’t able to explain. Our site looked completely different. The birds of the air sang in a beautiful tone. The ground was covered with vines. I prayed that this moment would never end. Freedom and freedom were assured in this world. I would rather stay in the woods than return to society.

My granddad was not in any way panicked, so I felt at ease. My grandfather took the initiative and started looking for a road map to help us. In the moment that he had the map in his hands, I felt happy. After all, I thought I had lost our trail. We were finally on the trail.

This experience made me reflect on my whole life. I am someone who is always looking for adventure. After getting lost in the woods, I felt saved by my grandfather and was confident that all was well. The realization dawned that responsibility and family are important aspects of life. When a person is alone, they become special.

The Motif Of Jealousy In Othello, A Play By William Shakespeare

Values change with time. Ideas and morals which were once standard can be changed to suit the present time. Othello’s and O’s time periods are very different. Othello is set in Elizabethan times, while O takes place at a modern high school. Shakespeare’s Othello and Nelsons movie ‘O’ explore changes in values over time. Both films and plays explore similar themes. They are however presented in different circumstances and settings. Shakespeare uses poetic techniques, while Nelson uses the techniques of film to illustrate themes. Both portray jealousy as a major theme. Iago’s jealousy and desire to avenge Othello because of his rank, despite Othello being black, is the first thing that comes across in Othello. Hugo (played by Iago) is jealous of Odin’s basketball skills and attention in O. Racism is another major issue in modern society and Elizabethan culture. Othello, the main character in the play is verbally abused and called many names based on Othello’s skin color. Racism is represented in O by stereotypical expressions. Othello was set in different times, but Shakespeare’s themes of racism and envy have not changed.

Both the play and movie are dominated by the theme of jealousy. Iago plots against Othello because he is jealous. He is jealous because Othello, who is a black person, was seen as a highly regarded person by society. Also, when Othello made Cassio lieutenant instead of Iago. Iago claims that Othello has made him hateful for giving the promotion to Cassio who was less experienced on the battlefield. Iago’s hatred of Othello grows as the story progresses. ” I hate moor. It is said abroad that between my linens, my office has been done. I know it not if be true. (Act1 scene3 lines 329-333). Here Iago is stating that he dislikes Othello as there was rumours of Othello sleeping with Emilia. Iago isn’t sure if it’s true but adds this rumour to the growing list of reasons for his hatred and jealousy. Iago uses different characters in the play to get revenge on Othello, pretending to be loyal.

Hugo portrays jealousy in O by Nelson based upon Othello by Shakespeare. Hugo plays Iago. Hugo plays basketball with Odin. The scene begins with Hugo’s dad, Hugo’s coach, awarding Odin’s MVP award. Odin’s speech by the coach states that “he loves him like his own child.” Hugo then claps with a stoic face. The next scene is everyone having fun at a birthday party. In the next scene, everyone is enjoying themselves at a party. However, then Roger and Hugo start talking in a dark corner. They both want to separate Odin from Dessie. Hugo convinces Roger ring Dessie’s father Dean, and spread a false rumour that Odin is forcing himself onto Dessie.

Both Othello and O portray racism. Iago’s impression of black men is that they have animalistic behavior. Iago informs Brabantio, in this scene, that Othello has eloped his daughter Desdemona. Iago contrasts words, using black to describe Othello and imply dark, gloomy feelings, while Desdemona is described in white. Othello is also referred to as the devil by Iago. Blackness seems to be associated with negative connotations and wrongdoings.

Odin, the protagonist of O by Nelson is often associated with negative symbols such as when Odin was accused of taking drugs by the duke. There is a black heroin dealer in a later movie. This could be a hint that most of the drug dealers would be black. The colour gives off the impression of filth and contamination, just like drugs. Rap songs are also used in certain scenes that use offensive words referring to black.

In spite of the fact that it was many years ago, when comparing themes as diverse as racism and envy in Elizabethan times we can see how little has changed. These issues are still very much present today. In the two movies and plays, jealousy is what causes people to be reckless and their attempts at revenge do not go well.

The Importance Of Empathy In To Kill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee

Harper Lee’s 1960 novel To Kill a Mockingbird was released. Harper Lee uses Scout all through the book to encourage the reader to demonstrate empathy, to put themselves in others’ shoes and to see the world from their perspective. As Scout matures, she develops empathy and conveys the message. Walter Cunningham, Scout’s teacher on her first school day, shows Scout that she understands him. Scout shows empathy to Boo Radley as the novel progresses. Scout has fully developed empathy for Boo at the end.

Scout’s empathy grows as To Kill a Mockingbird advances. Scout has reached the age where she can attend school. Her first day at school seems unfair and overwhelming, but as time goes on, Scout develops empathy. Miss Caroline Fisher offers Walter Cunningham, Scout’s new teacher at Maycomb, money to buy food because she can tell he’s malnourished. Scout explains when Walter does not accept the food money, that “the Cunninghams are never in debt… They have little, but get by”. Scout respects Walter and the Cunninghams’ values, not their poverty. Scout shows a high level of empathy for other people and their problems through his actions.

Scout’s character is portrayed in To Kill a Mockingbird as a child who is thoughtful, but not empathetic. Scout and Jem were first surprised by Boo, a dark creature that had been imprisoned in Boo’s dad’s residence for more than fifteen years. Jem tries to convince Scout to help him trap Boo. Jem, Scout and later understand that they had been irritating a man inside his house. Jem says something like, “Scout. It seems I’m starting to get it.” I’m starting to understand why Boo has been locked in his house all these years. . . It’s not because he doesn’t want to leave”. Scout’s unique ability to see Boo from this perspective shows her developing empathy. You can show Scout to be curious and beginning to understand the concept of empathy through her actions.

Scout’s relationship with Boo Radley changes as she grows more empathic. At the end of this book, Scout stands on the porch and thinks about Boo. “Atticus’s right…you cannot truly understand a man until he is in your shoes.” Scout’s ability was to comprehend what Atticus told her. She understood and saw things from a mockingbird perspective. The metaphor shows Scout to be empathetic toward Boo’s life and struggles. Scout becomes more mature and begins to see things from others’ perspectives.

The essay shows that Scout, despite her struggles in Maycomb County, was able to mature and change as she aged and gradually developed empathy. Scout’s lack of empathy is evident in the first chapters, especially towards Boo Radley. Scout begins to show more empathy towards various characters later in the book, including Boo Radley, Walter Cunningham, and others. Harper Lee uses Scout as a contrast to the invitee reading to emphasize the importance of showing empathy to others. Scout’s transition from being rude and unempathetic to becoming a nice child with wisdom reminds all of us that there is still room for growth.

Dreams Theme In The Play A Raisin In The Sun

A Raisin in the Sun is a play that depicts dreams through the perspective of Ruth and Walter. Benetha also plays a role. The play also focuses on the Younger family members who have to put off their dreams because of their family’s financial struggles. For example, Mama is unable to provide Travis with the fifty-cents he requires for a class activity. This play is about a black family and how they try to improve themselves based upon their financial situation.

The garden in the play is a symbol of the way she would care for her family, as she would do with her plants. Both dreams are put on hold because of a lack in money, which makes them live with their families in crowded apartments.

Mama’s wish is the same as Ruth’s, and the desire for a house with a huge garden stems from the fact the $10,000 insurance claim would be available to them after Big Walter Lee had died. Walter’s dream would be fulfilled by using the $10,000 from his insurance to buy the house and garden that his family wanted. Walter’s plan to build a store with Willy Harris, one of Walter’s great friends, wasn’t a good one because it would benefit only him. Walter’s family also thought that it was selfish to make this decision.

Beneatha’s dreams are not to be forgotten. Benetha’s dreams would be the most important for some. She wants to become an MD. Walter was going to put down $3,500 towards Benethas school costs, but Walter lost money when he bought the liquor store. Her dream has been deferred.

Lorraine Hansberry was inspired to write this play by her experience growing up on Chicago’s South Side and experiencing segregation. Hansberry brings out her activist side in this play. Walter is speaking to Mama and Walter has asked Mama why Clybourne Park. It’s true, there aren’t colored people in Clybourne Park. But she adds, “Well, they’re going to be more now…I just wanted to find something nice for my kids for as little money as possible…The houses that they build in the far-flung areas cost twice as much.” She then says in an article, “The problems is the fact that Negroes still live in segregated neighborhoods in Chicago.” This tells us that the city of Chicago is still segregated.

It is evident in Langston Hughes’ poem Harlem that all the family members who had dreams which were deferred struggled to keep them alive. But they are not just individual dreamers, at the end there is one big house that will unite everyone as a single family.

The Hope And Possibility Of Life In The Face Of Each Person’s Unavoidable End In Dawn Revisited By Rita Dove And When Death Comes By Mary Oliver

Dawn of Life and Death’s Dusk

Life and death are the only guarantees that every living creature on our planet has. The fate of the individual determines the duration and date of the end. Most people cope with their fear of death by focusing on life. Rita Dove (Dawn Revisited) and Mary Oliver (When Death Comes) explore the possibility and hope of a life, despite the unavoidable death of everyone.

Rita Dove, in “Dawn Revisited”, parallels a fresh start to a life with the first day of the week. The new day brings with it the possibility of a fresh start and a renewed life. Dove uses the imagery of a new start to convey the notion of renewal. She also uses the metaphor “the page” to express a positive outlook.

When Death Comes by Mary Oliver gives the audience the impression that the poem will be dark and express the inevitability death. Fear of pain and humanistic fear are often linked. Oliver expresses this fear of death through imagery: “When Death comes/like the measles-pox,” (Oliver 5-6), and “When Death comes/like an iceberg in between the shoulder blades,”(Oliver 8-8) While Death does not actually stab its victims with a slab ice in the back, the coldness of death is expressed by the sensation of the weapon’s temperature at the point of vulnerability. Death is personified in order to help humans accept the inevitable. It has the capacity to take, bargain, and even to be cruel.

Each poem uses different imagery to symbolize life. Oliver uses “the bear that is hungry in autumn” as a symbol of the death of life, personifying Death. Dove uses imagery in “Dawn Revisited” to represent the best of nature and, by extension, the speaker. The blue jay’s feathers and the oak leaves are brightly colored, evoking the feeling of spring. Fall brings out the deathly colors of brown fur and red autumn leaves.

Both poems convey a determination to live each day to its fullest. “When Death Came” does not refer to death as such, but instead focuses on living. When Death Comes, the speaker talks about their fear not being the death of life but of the possibilities of what they may never achieve. Oliver describes how she was the bridegroom who took the world into her arms. She also writes that death is approached with the same curiousity: “I am going through the doors full of curiosity to wonder what will it be like in that cottage of darkness.” The speaker’s desire for a new life is symbolized by the literal light. “How nice to wake up in the sunlight.” (Dove, 7).

Enjambment is a technique that both poets employ to create the illusion of continuing life. Death is seen by many as an end to the main story of a particular person. The end line in a structure poem. Rita Dove is the same as Mary Oliver in that they are both pursuing the same goals and achieving the same results. Both women want to be fearless in the face of death.

Review Of Boyer And Nissenbaum’s “Salem Possessed: The Social Origins Of Witchcraft”

Salem is a name that almost always draws attention. It’s not because of a good reputation. The Salem Witch trials are associated with a chaotic and out-of-control environment. The Crucible is an adaptation of Arthur Miller’s well-known play, and has been a source for many people. Both the play, and later the movie, were incredibly dramatic but only partially historically accurate. They lacked the necessary substance to really understand the reasons or circumstances that led to such a devastating event as the Witch Trials. It can be difficult to distinguish between fact and fiction when there are so many mythicized perspectives and events. The Salem Witch trials are best described in a non-dramatized way. Salem Possessed is an excellent example of a book with a historical approach that accurately portrays the Salem Witch Trials.

Boyer, Nissenbaum and others have done extensive research on the events leading up to the witchcraft hysteria, instead of focusing only on what is obvious. The first chapter of their book, which was not organized chronologically, is entitled “1692 New perspectives”, setting the tone for a book that has a rare perspective. The authors explain the events of 1692 in Salem with meticulous detail. Although the book may overwhelm some with its minute details and names, it is worth reading for anyone who has a genuine interest in Salem.

The authors explain their motivations for writing the book in a preface before delving into Salem’s history. Boyer & Nissenbaum were inspired to research Salem by a college class. They found a lot of unpublished documentation. After that, the writers question how much research has been done (or not) about Salem. Boyer Nissenbaum explain how they plan to use their newly found documents to shed light on the extraordinary events that took place in Salem. Boyer & Nissenbaum’s unique beginning to a work of scholarship is enough to entice readers.

Boyer Nissenbaum and Boyer can rely on these documents that have not been studied to create an argument focusing on the background, rather than just the witch trial itself. Using maps and demographics, the authors assess parts of Salem you might not think of when you imagine the town. Boyer & Nissenbaum, based on their geographical observations, notice a fascinating trend of where accusers, accused Witches, defenders and accused lived in Salem. The majority lived in east section of village. It is surprising how trivial things like geography can become important. This newfound pattern makes the writers consider the village’s social background. Boyer’s and Nissenbaum’s new perspective on Salem is based on two maps. Boyer, Nissenbaum and their team have two new perspectives that are very persuasive in revealing the history Salem. The village was further investigated to reveal the deep and complex relationship between the Porters and Putnams. Salem 1692 was a social hub with two prominent families. This created a lot of tension within the village. Initially amicable, they have gradually become more distant. Thomas Putnam gets carried away by his jealousy that his younger sister Joseph marries a Porter. This leads to chaos between the Putnams, Porters, and Putnams. Boyer, Nissenbaum and their characters realize the significance of these families for the entire village. They concentrate on the dynamics in this relationship which could very well have been the major cause of witchcraft hysteria. Many readers will be able to relate with their own internal conflicts, even if they are not as large or destructive. Further, historical evidences like the dispute between the two families provide a more convincing explanation of how the hysteria spread so quickly. The audience may not be convinced by this evidence because they don’t know what other towns and cities were involved. Boyer & Nissenbaum concentrate on the fight that happened between two families from Salem. Porter-Putnam’s story is a plausible origin for the witchcraft panic, but it does not provide a good explanation as to how the panic spread across Massachusetts.

The writers’ church records on membership and wealth were very interesting. In charts three and 4, the authors examine the number of villager pro-Parris church members as well their tax payments. On closer inspection, the data shows that a large number of poor villagers were supporting Parris. Parris was believed by many to be a main cause behind the witch trial. Parris received support from Putnams as well, the family that was accused of witchcraft most often. Parris played a major role, along with his followers in Salem’s escalation of accusations. This is something that many readers are already aware of. Boyer Nissenbaum has included tax lists as well as church records in this book. Boyer & Nissenbaum once again offer new insights. This list allows the audience members to witness the intriguing but unsettling evidence that may very well have contributed to the spreading of the witch-hunts.

Boyer & Nissenbaum’s analysis reveals aspects never before considered. The demographics, political factors, geography of Salem, and the effects on the community are just a few examples. When combined, these seemingly insignificant pieces of information are shocking. Boyer, Nissenbaum, and the other writers leave no option but to believe that maybe witchcraft didn’t have much of an impact. Instead, the people from Salem were more responsible, because of all their differences and beliefs. There are many questions that remain unanswered, such as how other towns contributed to the confusion. However, the authors present an intriguing argument. This book does not focus on the accused, or the drama, they create in Salem. It takes a more historical approach. Boyer & Nissenbaum examine the reactions of adults to the events and the way they interpreted them. Boyer & Nissenbaum present the witchcraft panic in a non-dramatic way from beginning to end. The evidence they provide forces readers to see Salem in a different light. They provide a fresh perspective on Salem.

Another Country: Finding Happiness In Homosexuality, Overcoming Rejection, Identity, And Desire

James Baldwin’s Another Country has a number of central characters that experience confusion or anxiety when their identities, bodies and desires are intertwined. One could argue that Eric, a gay expatriate returning to New York to pursue an acting career, does not suffer from such crises. This is true even though he has an affair with married heterosexual Cass. Eric’s affair, however, does not confuse his sexuality.

Eric is introduced in France, where he lives with Yves, his partner of just under two years. Baldwin portrays Eric’s relationship with Yves, as one of mutual respect, affection, and love. Baldwin does not include the racial subtext, gendered or classed that appears in all other characters. Baldwin introduces Eric and Yves in the very first chapter. The couple is shown to be content together.

Yves was the one who had moved in with him, but it was more accurately and literally Yves. Yves had literally moved in to his home, but both had been searching for a place of their own.

This passage shows how the relationship between Eric and Yves is complete and happy because they have found a sense of home. The final sentence implies that the relationship and the happiness it brings are the result of a lengthy search for a partner that each could love. This implies that Eric’s internalised crisis of identity and desire was resolved when he began a relationship with Yves in France. In fact, when Eric decided to return to New York he “did not want to leave Yves behind” [Baldwin p. 158] Eric’s acceptance and happiness with his sexuality is a result of his relationship to Yves.

Eric’s acceptance, comfort and loyalty towards Yves is evident in the remainder of the book. The affair he has with Cass before he moved to New York makes his homosexuality queer. Baldwin claims that Eric and Cass agreed to this affair.

“‘You’re making me feel very weird,’ [Eric] replied.

You’ve made my heart feel like it’s never been before.

[Cass] inquired, “What do you make me feel?”

She could tell he wanted to do something for her. 242]

Eric, as a homosexual willing to have a romantic relationship with women, shows how the concepts of desire, body and identity are interwoven, or not. The affair of Eric and Cass indicates that the concepts of bodies, identities and desires are not necessarily interwoven.

Baldwin argues Eric can still desire women despite his homosexuality. Annamarie Jagose argues in a book entitled Queer Theory An Introduction that men who marry women, identify as heterosexual, but still want to have sex are not necessarily homosexuals or secret homosexuals. [2] Eric’s affair reminds of Carl Wittman in “A Gay Manifesto”, who asserted that a homosexual identity was not based on a sexual desire with whom one had sex but rather a social recognition, a willingness and capacity to identify as homosexual. Baldwin, Jagose, Wittman and others suggest that the gender or sexuality of a partner is not what defines one’s identity. Sex and sexuality, they say, are different concepts. Eric’s desire is shown as being indiscriminate to bodies and identities.

Cass has a difficult time separating her desire, body and identity. Vivaldo’s friend, Eric and Cass’s mutual acquaintance, says that Cass surprised him more than Eric about the affair. This could suggest that Cass has been deemed more conservative or more prudent by Eric. Unlike Eric, perhaps the real issue isn’t the body being desired, or how it impacts one’s self-identity, but the very existence of desire. Vivaldo’s girlfriend remarked, “Cass has two children and is an adult woman.” What about the kids? “Those kids will hate her”. [Baldwin, pp. There is an assumption that there is a dual standard in the case of promiscuity. Eric, an openly homosexual man, can have a sexually ambiguous affair, even though he is in a relationship. However, Cass, a married woman who cheats her husband is criticized by her friends.

If we ignore sexuality, sex – the act combining bodies with desire – is inherently gendered. Wittman argues that Eric’s affair consolidates his homosexuality by allowing him to ignore naturalized gender roles. Cass is not able to accept this departure from gender norms and continues to be sexually oppressed. Wittman adds that, “One big problem [for homosexuals] comes down to our male chauvinism”, Eric’s sexual exploitation of Cass is due to the gender difference. [Wittman] Cass’s desire to escape her boring, oppressive marriage is thwarted by Eric because of the gender roles that prevent women from acting on their desires.

Gender is a big factor in how the bodies, identities, desires, and other elements are interwoven within Another Country. Eric’s acceptance of sexual flexibility allows him to distinguish between the three categories and keep them separate. Eric’s homosexuality, and his ability to live outside of gender roles is what allows him to be sexually fluid without any consequence to his identity. Cass is bound by gender roles and cannot engage in sexual fluidity. This is because she has naturalized gender. Cass can’t break completely free of gender roles.

The novel depicts the interweaving as complex, and the fact that these categories are reaffirming the gender roles in society. Baldwin’s Eric character suggests that a person can be truly happy and free of the confusion created by these categories and gender roles.


Original: Furthermore

Paraphrased: In addition

James Baldwin: Another Country (New York, Dell Publishing Company; 1963), page 158

[2] Annamarie Jaguare, Queer Theory (New York: New York University Press 2001), p. 7.

[3] Carl Wittman, “A Gay Manifesto”, Queer Theory Course Reader, Cheryl Kader Instructor, UWM Spring 2016, p.

Analysis Of Persuasive Techniques Used By David Foster Wallace In Consider The Lobster

David Foster Wallace uses details to show the cruelty of preparing lobsters. Wallace gives outside resources to his readers and also draws their attention to MFL who state that lobsters don’t feel pain. Wallace may have a controversial opinion, but his article can influence the audience’s moral judgment on boiling lobsters to be consumed. Wallace uses descriptive details and pathos in his article to convince an audience that includes lobster festival attendees, chefs, animal rights activists, and public.

Wallace’s argument is supported by facts and a lot of detail. He uses the Maine Lobster Festival to show the unnecessary deaths of lobsters. Wallace illustrates the preparation of Lobsters at both the Main Lobster event and one’s own kitchen. Wallace goes in great detail to describe the Maine Lobster Festival, so that he can convey the idea of people ignoring the mass slaughter of thousands lobsters. Wallace’s describes the lobster trying to hold onto the container and even hooking its claws, just as if it were a person who was in pain. Wallace cites sources to confirm that lobsters experience pain. In his article, he corrects the sources that claim Lobsters are not aware of pain. By doing so, his article becomes more credible. Wallace emphasizes how a Lobster’s scrabbling shows that it is in pain. U.S. News reports that some people believe the hissing sound when crustaceans are in boiling water to be a scream. (It’s not as they do not have vocal chords.) Wallace also appeals to emotions and creates a pathos effect by comparing the Maine Lobster Festival to a Nebraska Beef Festival. The audience feels guilty when comparing the Maine Lobster Festival with the Nebraska Beef Festival. Wallace asks, “At which part of the festival is it that people watch trucks pulling up, and then the cattle are driven down and killed right there …”? But what about the lobsters?” Wallace’s hypocrisy is evident when he uses the example of how the people are saddened by the slaughter of the Cattle but not Lobsters. He uses this example to show how hypocritical people are when it comes to the mass killing of lobsters, but find other animal slaughters horrifying. Wallace continues with another inhumane metaphor. “Lobster will often cling to container sides or even hook claws on the kettle’s rim to avoid going over a rooftop.” This is a great example of how the boiling process can make the cooking method seem cruel. Wallace uses another comparison to show how lobsters are only for the poor and that it is cruel to feed them. Wallace’s disgusting words are backed by many others. “Lobsters, boiled or not, are good to sell and look pretty, but as for eating, I would prefer rubber castoffs.” Wallace’s metaphors help audiences to better understand how lobsters suffer when they are cooked.

Wallace uses logic to help readers understand Lobsters. Knowing more about Lobsters will help readers understand the unethical nature of boiling Lobsters. Wallace offers research on the Maine Lobster Festival that is a well-known event. Wallace’s arguments may have made many people want to avoid the Main Lobster Festival after mentioning its horrifying aspects. Wallace’s ability to explain to the audience what is involved in having a live lobster on their plate gives them a better understanding. Wallace may have a negative view of lobster boiling, but many people love eating lobster and don’t want to stop. Lobsters have become more than just a food item for many individuals. They are an idea or event. Wallace explains the reasons why Lobsters shouldn’t be boiled/cooked. He uses facts, pathos and logic to support his argument. Wallace demonstrates that Lobsters are in pain and it’s cruel to kill them. Wallace is extremely convincing and makes his audience think.

Jerry Spinelli Biography: The Life And Times Of An American Children Novel Author

Jerry Spinelli, the boy behind the writer

Seidman David (9), “The 15 years that I spent in my early life was a long research project.” Jerry Spinelli was not a writer in his youth. In the end, he believed that he’d been born a cowboy. In second grade, he performed “I Have Spurs” to his entire class while dressed as a cowboy. Jerry knew he wanted a career as a shortstop for baseball in high and middle school. In the 11th Grade, he changed his mind about becoming a professional shortstop when he was published for a piece describing a local football match. His destiny became a journalist (Spinelli Bio). Jerry Spinelli’s experiences have helped him become the writer and author he is.

Jerry was born in Norristown, Pennsylvania. He had a dream to become a Major League Shortstop. (“Jerry Spinelli”). Jerry commented on his hometown saying: “I just thought I was growing in Norristown. Pennsylvania. I can now see how I was constantly gathering material to be used in my books. Jerry’s father was the ticket collector and scorekeeper at basketball and football games (Spinelli and Knots). You could say Jerry had to be a sports fanatic. Although he had many accomplishments to his name, the one that made him most proud was winning the junior high 50 yard race when he aged 12 years. Spinelli (Internet), Spinelli (Knots) said it was “the only race I’ve ever participated in”. During middle school, he was a member of a Little League Baseball team. He was the worst team player the first year. Next year, at the position he wanted to play: shortstop, he was selected for the All-Star team. All of his team members received championship jackets after winning the championship. Jerry was happy with the jackets, but he wanted to be able to display his achievements. One week later, he was elated to see that they had been awarded trophies (Spinelli and Knots).

Jerry has said that his many sporting experiences have been used to create his books. “I think I’ve just used some [of them] in my books.” (Seidman David 12). Jerry’s other books are centered around sports, and it is hard to find a book that doesn’t mention sports at some point.

Jerry’s enthusiasm for sports drove him to pen a verse about a home football game. They beat one of the most talented teams in the State! It was the excitement that led him to pen his first poem: “Goal-to-Go” (“Jerry Spinelli”) The moment he saw the book, he knew he would be a novelist. Jerry’s most favorite subject was English in school (Seidman David at 17).

Jerry was shocked by the transition from junior school to high-school. Jerry’s favorite subject is English as mentioned above. But he said that math was a challenge: “Although I was a math whiz in ninth grade, geometry befuddled my …. I couldn’t picture the dimensions in my mind,” (Seidman David, 17). Jerry studied English at Gettysburg College when he finished high school. Jerry had a position as the editor of a literary college newspaper. He was later hired as the editor of a magazine for men (Spinelli, bio). He began writing his first book, Space Station Seventh Grade.

Jerry said the following about Eileen, who is also a passionate writer: “While publishing houses were rejecting me, someone else didn’t. Eileen Spinelli, my wife became a writer and together we had six kids. Jerry said he spent a lot of time with “…. Jerry’s kids were also there to help him. He was reminded of childhood memories by his kids, which he had thought long gone. Spinelli, in his bio, said that he used “these memories as a reference library” to do most of his research. Jerry was also queried about his research. He stated that he did not often use books to gather information. Instead, he relied on the memories etched in his mind. Jerry says that his ideas are inspired by everyday life. And imagination. And feelings. And memories. Memories of dusty sneakers and humming wall-to-wall whitewalls on a hill known as Monkey,”(Jerry Spinelli).

Jerry Spinelli, a biographical note, has written thirty books. Stargirl tells a story about a girl named “Stargirl,” told through the eyes of Leo. Stargirl undergoes many phases and strange practices during her new high-school career. Leo, however, slowly falls in love. (“Popular”).

Jerry Spinelli’s story Maniac magee won him a Newberry Award. The story is about Jeffery Magee and his orphanage. He flees from his aunt and uncle, who are miserable. The rest tells the exciting adventures of Maniac, and how he affects the lives of others (“Popular”)

Jerry Spinelli wrote his autobiography until the age of 16. Jerry Spinelli shares his life adventures which helped him become the author he is now. This story tells of Jerry’s adventures in life, including his first fight, his first kiss and all his sporting achievements. The book allows readers to see how Jerry came up with his stories. The Washington Post made the following comment about Jerry’s writing: Jerry Spinelli brings back memories of childhood for readers around the world. His stories are filled with tears, laughter, friendships and victories. He is a relatable author for children. Jerry Spinelli makes us remember what it’s really like to be an innocent child.